The computer is a handy electronic machine manufactured by man. Computers have greatly affected our daily lives. Whether it is home or school, college, office, industry, hospital, bank, retail store, railway research and design institute, etc., we can feel its presence in every field.
A computer is basically a programmable computing machine. Earlier computers were used for complex calculations, and only scientists and engineers could use them. They were very expensive, so only some big institutions could buy them. Technological advances in the design and design of semiconductor devices such as microprocessors, etc. made possible the creation of such powerful microprocessors within small institutions and personal reach. Since these computers are very fast to calculate, they are not only used in calculations, but they are also used to store information and retrieve it. They control chemical processes and machines. These physical and electrical objects can be measured and displayed, as well as send photographs through electronic means.
The word ‘computer’ originated from the word ‘compute’ which means to calculate. Therefore, a computer is generally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arrhythmic operations at a very fast rate. But more precisely, a computer can be defined as a device that works on top of the data. Data can be anything. For example, when we use computers to provide employment to people, the data can be the bio-data of many applicants.
A computer not only stores and processes the data, but it also retrieves the data, that is, whenever it is needed, you can take the data out of its memory or storage. Hence, the computer is a common term which refers to an electronic data processing machine used for a variety of activities.
The two basic types of computers are:
Analog computers handle or process information that is of a physical nature such as temperature, pressure, etc. It is based on measuring analog or equivalent physical values.
Digital computers process information that is essentially in binary or two-state form. Like ‘0’ and ‘1’. When we talk about computers, we usually refer to digital types of electronic machines. Digital computers come under microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers which are classified in order of size from bottom to top, ie small, medium, large and very large.